Heat oven to 350ºF. Warm ¼ cup olive oil in a medium saucepan over medium heat. Add garlic and cook until softened and just beginning to turn light golden. Add tomatoes and cook, stirring occasionally, until they begin to burst and juices have thickened slightly, 6 to 8 minutes. Season with salt and pepper and keep warm over low heat.
On a large baking sheet, toss ¼ cup olive oil with bread cubes and spread into an even, single layer. Bake, tossing halfway through, until golden and crisp, 10 to 12 minutes, then set aside to cool. When cool, crush to create rough, chunky bread crumbs. Mix bread crumbs, broccoli rabe, and eggs together in a medium bowl and season with salt and pepper.
Heat 2 tablespoons olive oil in an 8-inch nonstick skillet over medium heat. Add half the egg mixture and spread into an even layer. Cook, without disturbing, until bottom has set and begun to cook through, 2 to 3 minutes. Place 2 slices of provolone on top, then fold half the egg mixture over the cheese, much like an omelet. Don’t worry if it’s messy or broken. Partially cover and cook over low heat until cheese has melted and egg has cooked through, about 2 minutes. Transfer to a plate, wipe out skillet, and repeat with remaining olive oil and egg mixture. Serve alongside warm tomatoes.